Sheikh Kafumba Konneh had always taken a keen interest in his religion, Islam. The Saclapea, Nimba County-born Liberian prelate much earlier became Secretary General of the Muslim Union in Sanniquellie, capital of Nimba County. He later traveled to Monrovia where he continued his involvement in Muslim affairs, rising, in 2002, to the lofty position of Chairman of the National Muslim Council of Liberia.It was in that position that Sheikh Kafumba united his people and shepherded them successfully through the turbulent 1980s and even during the terrible war years. The Observer publishers, staunch and unapologetic believers in the Almighty, felt it was important, at least once a week, to connect its many readers with Scripture, in order to keep them reminded that they were not here on this troubled earth alone. There is an unseen but loving and powerful Hand behind each one of us and the publishers felt the whole populace needed to be reminded of that—at least once a week. And what better day than Friday, the day on which Jesus was crucified; the day on which the Muslims gather for their prayers, the day before the Jews and Seventh Day Adventists observe their Sabbath and three days before the Christian Sabbath?When in June 2005 the Daily Observer was re-launched following 15 years of exile, Sheikh Kafumba willingly agreed to contribute the Islamic column. He faithfully produced it each week, until he recently took ill and was unable to continue.Sheikh was often misunderstood by some Christians and Muslems alike. There are some who, during the Liberian civil conflict, tried to link him with this or that warring faction. But many who knew and were closely associated with him totally reject that accusation. They say he was consummately a man of peace. Everyone, including President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, who spoke at his funeral yesterday, made the identical point (See pages 4-5). That is why Sheikh Kafumba became, along with the former Roman Catholic Archbishop of Monrovia, the Most Rev. Michael K. Francis, the Liberia Baptist Convention’s Rev. Levee Moulton, the Pentecostal’s Bishop Dixon and the Episcopal Church’s Canon Burgess Carr, among others, a founding member of the Inter-Faith Committee of Liberia (now the Inter-Religious Council). Their aim: to stop the war and restore peace to Mother Liberia. The Committee made many trips to Freetown, Sierra Leone and elsewhere to participate in the Peace Talks. Meanwhile, as the war raged on, many factions emerged, including Alhaji Kromah’s ULIMO and Damate Conneh’s LURD, all Islamic-based. Many assumed that because of this, Sheikh Kafumba had to be aligned with them. But that was far from the case. Kafumba was a man of peace and inter-religious tolerance and sacrificed his life for these principles. One prominent Moslem told the Daily Observer yesterday that the Sheikh was heavily criticized by people connected with these two warring movements—ULIMO and LURD. Its leaders could not understand why Sheikh Kafumba would not back them and so became estranged from him. Sheikh Kafumba always explained to warring faction leaders that he was a man of peace and could not under any circumstance participate in a violent movement.And his colleagues on the Inter-Ministerial Council, which he also served as Chairman, as well as the Christian Council of Liberia and the Interim Government of National Unity Chairman Dr. Amos Sawyer, believed Sheikh Konneh. The noted Liberian scholar and writer, Nvasekie Konneh, said in his highly enlightening piece, published in today’s edition of this newspaper, summed up the character of Sheikh Kafumba. Said Nvasekie, “At a time when some cold blooded criminals are committing terrible crimes in the name of Islam, Sheikh Kafumba Konneh represented the face of Islam that calls for moderation, interfaith dialogue and engagement.” Thank you, Sheikh Kafumba, for your dynamic and exemplary leadership that helped in no small measure in creating the peace we enjoy in Liberia today.R.I.P. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
The Editor,Some of the products of our government schools don’t know pupu! And they can’t spell it (pupu) either—even if you told them that the word “pupu” begins with a consonant and has 2 vowels in it! That’s why you see them booting on our beaches, even though when there’s a big sign that says DO NOT PUPU HERE, YOU IDIOT!”But yet the President believes that you can improve our education system by emulating the failed top-down policies from the central planners at Ministry of Education and the so-called education experts! (Re “Liberia’s Messy Education”….”From Mess to Best”)Look. Most of these education experts you see with the President, at these meetings, wearing their exotic Liberian apparel, are just there to make big, big speeches and eat free government food. According to the Deputy Minister of Education, Dr. Khalipha Bility “Before good food waste, let belly burst!”Since 2006, these same people and their ilk have failed to improve the educational outcome of our children, but yet you, Madam President, continue to take seriously the pretensions of these so-called “education experts” who put on airs of having professional expertise beyond the understanding of our illiterate parents!But you know what? I will never forget those market women of West Point, with little or no schooling, who just wanted a good education for their children. That was their vision, and they didn’t need book people telling them that government schools were rotten and private schools were far superior! They had common sense!To achieve their vision, they toiled under the hot sun—selling used clothing, pepper, bitter balls, etc. They used the profits to send their kids to private Catholic Schools because they knew that a superior education was the key to get you out of poverty!So how about empowering poor parents to solve our education mess, Madam President? It’s their children who bear the brunt of your failed top-down government policies!Yes, we all know that they can’t read and write, but as my father used to say, they have “Mother Wit”. They know good schools from bad schools.A good start in the right direction would be to abolish our US$80 million Ministry of Education altogether, and use that money to help poor parents who want to take their kids out of poor performing government schools!At the barest minimum, an “opportunity scholarship” or education voucher ought to be available to allow poor parents to opt out of our rotten government schools.The time has come for poor parents to have school choice too!Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Kilcar man and FG Seanad candidate John McNulty.TAOISEACH Enda Kenny has defended a Donegal businessman on his appointment to a semi-state museums board so he can run for a seat in the Seanad.John McNulty has been at the centre of a political storm all week.“It is the right of the leader of the day to decide who is nominated. I have to decide who should be nominated. I have to verify all the nominations of all the candidates for General Elections and for the Seanad. The process is one Fine Gael has always followed,” said Mr Kenny on a trip to America. Mr Kenny added: “I hope that John McNulty will prove to be an outstanding Senator. He is a young man with considerable energy and potential. He is involved in a lot of different activities in an area that needs every help it can get. Where obviously rural Ireland needs every assistance it can get.”Mr Kenny also rejected an argument the appointment should have been given to a woman.“Well I saw some commentary about this about gender balance. The two candidates in the Dail by elections, Cait Keane and Maura Hopkins, speak for themselves and are well able to speak for themselves and hopefully will win those elections,” he said.TAOISEACH DEFENDS APPOINTMENT OF SEANAD HOPEFUL McNULTY was last modified: September 25th, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Fine Gaeljohn mccolgan financial adviceSeanad
Passive solar and solar-tempered buildingsThirty-five years ago, I designed and built a classic passive solar home in Colorado. The Climate Zone 5 site has 5,600 heating degree days.My goal was to build an energy-efficient home using materials that cost no more in total than typical home construction. Passive solar heat gain through large south-facing windows provided most of the winter space heating energy. The design was intended to reduce supplementary space heating substantially and minimize utility bills. The upstairs solar-tempered rooms only needed supplementary heating on the coldest nights (about one-third of mid-winter nights). Passive solar heat gain almost eliminated the need for space heating on the main floor. Unlike the upstairs, the first floor has a tiled, concrete floor (with large amounts of thermal mass) to absorb heat to radiate later, stabilizing interior temperature fluctuations.This raises the question: Could a passive solar home be built successfully and cost-effectively in other cold, northern climates — climates more challenging than the sunny but cold climate of the Rocky Mountain Front Range? For a classic direct-gain passive solar design with a south-facing window wall paired with thermal mass, the answer seems to be “no” or “not easily.” Five cloudy days in a row is not unusual for New England, for example. Long stretches of overcast days produce large heat losses through large windows, with minimal solar heat gains to compensate.Even if it is not possible to build a classic passive solar home in other climates, solar gains can be used for substantial solar-tempered wintertime home heating. Appendix: ReferencesThe following web resources were useful for gathering climate and solar gain data. Other internet data sources may include somewhat different data, but the patterns of data would lead to similar conclusions.Sustainable By Design by Christopher Gronbeck. Seattle, Washington. Appendix D, Degree Day and Design Temperatures.Bizee Degree Days. Winter conditions and solar heat gains in northern U.S. metro areasTable 1 lists 22 northern U.S. cities. These cities are geographically dispersed, with more cities located in the northeast and Great Lakes regions. Much of the population of northern U.S. live in or near these metropolitan areas. Seasonal variation in solar heat gainLocations in the northern U.S. are winter-heating-dominated (meaning that more energy is needed for winter heating and much less for summer cooling). So the solar heat gain analysis has focused on the coldest month (January) for the 22 northern U.S. locations. For the months of December and January, the sun is low on the horizon during midday. Consequently, south-facing windows capture far more light, and thereby produce far more solar heat gain, than windows facing other directions.However, many northern U.S. locations can experience uncomfortably hot summers as well as cold winters. Heat gains from windows can contribute to overheating. There is more total sunlight shining in summer (June to August in the northern hemisphere) than mid-winter (December to February). Before choosing window locations, sizes and performance characteristics, we need to examine solar heat gains throughout the year, not just January.Table 6 lists the BTUs per square foot of window glass per day for Providence, R.I. (the northeastern coastal city that looks most promising for solar heating).The first five columns list each month of the year, and the daily solar heat gain per square foot of window glazing for windows facing south, north, and east, or west , and the average heat gain over the four window directions.The rightmost column 6 of the table shows the percentage of gains for one south-facing window compared to the combined total of three windows facing north, east, and west.At the bottom of the table, the yearly gains are totaled for south-, north-, east-, and west-facing windows. Positioning and sizing windows to improve home energy performanceSince heat gain is desirable during January for homes in northern latitudes, locating windows on the south side is far more beneficial than other orientations, assuming that that south window is not blocked from getting sunlight from obstructions during midday.In the hotter summer season, solar heat gain through windows is usually undesirable. Even though south-facing windows have much higher solar gain during December and January than other orientations, the situation in summer has changed significantly due to changes in the position of the sun at midday. During the summer months, the path of the sun has changed. In June, the sun is closer to overhead at noon, so south windows have far less solar heat gain. Meanwhile, the solar heat gain through east- and west-facing windows is more intense due to the greater amount of solar radiation around June (for the northern hemisphere). East- and west- facing windows gain far more heat than south-facing windows during the summer months, until late August. West-facing windows gain that heat in the afternoon, usually during the hottest time of the day, making west-facing windows particularly undesirable unless well shaded.Note that the values in Table 6 highlighted in light blue show that south-facing windows gain less heat in June and July compared to east- or west-facing windows.The data on solar heat gains is summarized in Figure 2, below. This information in an aid in choosing the best direction and size of windows facing different directions. RELATED ARTICLESA Passive Solar Home from the 1980s Reassessing Passive Solar Design PrinciplesThe History of Superinsulation in North AmericaSolar Versus Superinsulation: A 30-Year-Old DebateStudy Shows That Expensive Windows Yield Meager Energy ReturnsAll About Thermal MassCost-Effective Passive Solar DesignPassive Solar HeatOverheating from South Windows The ease and value of using solar heat gainsIt is easier to maximize wintertime solar heating in some climates than others.The cost-effectiveness of solar heating varies among regions as well. The cost of electricity, natural gas, or other heating fuels can impact the use of passive solar heat gains for wintertime space heating. Passive solar heat gains are more valuable in areas with higher costs for electricity or other heating fuels, or with occupants who are less affluent, or architects, owners, or builders more concerned with sustainable building.Well-insulated and airtight energy-efficient homes are likely to use electric minisplit heat pumps, resistance electric heat, or radiant electric heat as backup or alternatives for passive solar or solar tempered space heating. The smaller amount of heating needed for space heating in high-performance homes makes more costly or elaborate heating systems no longer cost-effective or necessary. So the cost of electricity is used to compute the value of solar heat gains in the following analysis. Solar heat gain computationsWhen designing a building, the solar heating potential can be computed. The amount of solar heat gain from windows varies tremendously. If windows get direct sun in mid-winter, solar heat gain might provide the majority of needed space heating energy for a well-insulated, airtight building. Some important factors for the amount of solar heat gain are the:Size of the window glass;Window’s orientation or direction (e.g., facing south, east, west or north);Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), the solar gain potential, usually 0.35 to 0.7, or 35% to 70% for efficient new windows; andU-factor (inverse of R-value), which measures the rate of heat losses through that window to the cold outdoors.Table 2 shows the amount of solar heat gain per square foot of window glass for the cities listed previously. Figure 1 depicts the grouping of northern U.S. cities by solar heating potential, as listed in Table 1. The specific microclimate of any building location should be used in building design, rather than the rough approximation of solar potential shown in this map or Table 1. The resources cited in the Appendix or other internet resources may provide climate data for your location or a similar climate nearby.From this ordering of cities by average mid-winter solar heat gain potential, we may begin to conclude:Denver is the best location for wintertime daylighting, for using solar heat gain for space heating, and for PV.Kansas City and cities along the northeast coast also look promising for wintertime daylighting, space heating, and PV.Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and Midwestern cities would not be good candidates to rely on wintertime solar heating.Overcast winter conditions are more likely for cities west of large bodies of water.Next, we need to explore solar heat gains and losses in more detail for each metro area. Assumptions and exploitation of solar gain dataTo model anything, you have to make some reasonable assumptions. The windows specifications used here might be typical for a Pretty Good House design, being relatively high-performance windows but in the affordable range.Only 22 cities are examined, and only in the northern U.S. Comparable data was not readily available for Canada or Europe, and limits on the length of the article and readable table size limited the cities listed.The window orientations were limited to true south, east, west, and north. Similar analysis could be performed by using web resources to compute solar gains for windows in other orientations.Heating Degree Days vary year-to-year, so other HDD numbers may be found. Cost of electricity varies over time as well. But overall, if values are changed to reflect other information sources, a similar overall pattern will emerge, unlikely changing any of the main conclusions of this modeling effort. Window specifications and climate data for your specific construction project are more important than the generalizations made here. The data in the table indicate:South-facing windows produce the most natural daylighting and solar heat gain from the month of September through the month of April. Daylighting and heat gain are desirable especially in cold winter-heating-dominated climates of the northern U.S.Incredibly, south-facing windows gain about fifteen times as much light and solar heat gain as north-facing windows in December and in January.South-facing windows gain about 3.5 times as much light and solar heat gain per square foot than either east- or west-facing windows in December and in January.Note from the cells highlighted in yellow: During the winter, from November through February, one south-facing window would produce more light and solar heat gain than the total gain of three windows facing north, east, and west, respectively.East- or west-facing windows produce the most heat gain from May through August. Heat gain during the summer months is usually undesirable, especially in cooling-dominated climates of the southeastern U.S.North-facing windows produce the least natural daylighting and solar heat gain for every month of the year. North windows would be most desirable in cooling-dominated climates, or during hot summer periods anywhere in the U.S. — but not during the cold and darker winters of northern U.S. locations.Providence, R.I., is not unique among northern U.S. cities. All of the 22 northern U.S. locations examined previously exhibit the same pattern of superior winter energy performance for south-facing windows.In January, one south-facing window produces more solar heat gain than the solar gains from three windows facing north, east, and west for all 22 cities. The south-facing window advantage ranges from at least 140% (Indianapolis) and 144% (Denver), to the most extreme 179% (Seattle) and 338% (far-north Anchorage, Alaska).Taking account of heat losses from the windows produces much more extreme results favoring south-facing glazing. In Table 2, it was noted that north-facing windows are always a net BTU loss, since heat losses exceed the meager solar heat gains for all 22 cities. Even for east- and west-facing windows, losses exceeded solar heat gains except for Denver. Table 4 only looks at solar heat gains without considering losses. The advantages of south-facing windows become even greater when losses are incorporated. Average January temperature (°F), the coldest month of the year.Winter design temperature (°F), or “coldest expected temperature.”North latitude location (degrees north of the Equator).Average percent of sunlight shining in January (opposite of cloudiness). The highest percentages are highlighted in green, and the lowest red and pink.Average daily solar heat gain per square foot of south-facing window glass in January.Solar gain compared to Denver, the city with the highest solar heat gain in the list. Cities in the table are listed in descending order of their mid-winter solar heat gain.Table 1 shows wide variation in heating degree days, winter design temperatures, and January’s average percentage of available sunlight. The lowest numbers are about double the highest. For January solar heat gain from south-facing windows, the highest numbers are triple the lowest.An interesting result: It turns out that when these cities are ordered by average solar heat gain, they happen to be ordered somewhat by geographic areas:Denver, with the highest average solar heat gain in January.Kansas City (east of Denver), second highest.Next seven cities are all located in the northeast, along the Atlantic coast (Providence; Hartford; Boston; Portland, Maine; New York City; Philadelphia; and Concord, N.H.).The following four cities are along the north central and western U.S. (Minneapolis; Salt Lake City; Bismarck, N.D.; and Billings, Montana) .Next, six cities in the Midwest and Great Lakes area (Chicago; Indianapolis; Detroit; Burlington, Vermont; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Buffalo, N.Y.).Two cities along the Pacific northwest coast (Portland, Oregon; and Seattle).Finally, Anchorage, Alaska, along the far northern Pacific coast, with by far the lowest solar heat gain.This geographic ordering is illustrated in the map in Figure 1. In Table 1, each city is listed with wintertime climate statistics:Annual heating degree days (HDD), an index of the amount of heating needed each winter season. The warmer HDD numbers are highlighted in tan, and colder are highlighted in ice blue. Exploiting knowledge of window orientation in building design can magnify the effects noted in these tablesDesigners and builders can use higher solar heat gain windows on south-facing windows and higher R-value (lower U-factor) windows on north, west, and east-facing windows to further increase solar gains and reduce heat losses overall. In passive solar and solar-tempered homes, typically there are more or larger windows facing south, and fewer or smaller windows facing other directions.Varying window sizes and numbers can increase or decrease solar gains and heat losses to affect overall energy performance. Conclusions(1) To exploit solar heat gains from windows in mid-winter (and minimize heat gain in summer), we can build on a building lot that has good south-facing solar access during mid-winter, when the sun appears lower on the horizon mid-day. Modify the landscape of the property to optimize wintertime solar heat gain (and reduce summertime solar heat gain from the west).(2) To exploit solar heat gains from windows in mid-winter (and minimize heat gain in summer), we can, as much as practical, locate more and larger windows facing within 15 degrees of south, and try to reduce the glazing on walls facing north and west (and perhaps east).(3) Overall, unobstructed south-facing windows gain more heat than they lose during mid-winter in almost all U.S. climates.(4) South-facing windows can provide about fifteen times as much light and solar heat gain in winter as north-facing windows.(5) During mid-winter, south-facing windows can provide more than triple the amount of light and solar heat gain in winter than east- and west-facing windows.(6) South-facing windows have less undesirable solar gain during summer than west- or east-facing windows.(7) East-facing windows provide sunlight early in the morning when a house interior is the coolest, so they are more useful than west-facing windows. East-facing windows can be more useful on winter mornings to warm up a cold house, but are quickly overtaken by warming from south-facing windows.(8) Unobstructed west-facing windows produce heat gains mostly in the afternoon. Even during winter afternoons, additional space heating may not be needed by the afternoon. In the summer, that afternoon heat gain typically is undesirable. Try to design smaller and fewer west-facing windows.(9) Design for the local climate, considering winter temperatures (heating degree days and winter design temperatures), cloudiness (or average percent of available sunlight in January), and costs of electricity (or fuel for heating). Climate zone temperatures are important, as are available solar heat gains and utility prices.(10) Calculate solar heat gains when designing, and compare to heat losses.(11) Make adjustments to window locations, sizes, and glazing options (SHGC and U-factor) to optimize natural lighting and solar heat gain in winter and summer seasons.(12) Consider different glazing for windows facing different directions. South-facing window glazing may optimize heat gains with higher SHGC, and west-facing windows with lower SHGC glazing. Glazing with lower U-factors (higher R-values) for north- and west-facing windows tend to have lower SHGC.(13) Design roof overhangs, patio or deck coverings, and landscaping to preserve unobstructed sunshine in winter, and shade west- and east-facing windows during summer months. South-facing windows also have increased solar heat gain in late August to consider.(14) Exploit sustainable solar heating to lower the building’s heat load, utility bills, and supplementary space heating systems.(15) Consider less costly minisplit heat pumps or even simpler resistance or radiant heating in energy-efficient high performance homes, which have a much lower heating load.(16) Reduce the amount spent on larger and more complex supplementary space heating systems to allocate funds for more insulation, air-sealing measures, and more energy-efficient windows and doors. Re-allocating costs would reduce the cost and complexity of the space heating system, and can enable solar heating to provide a greater portion of space heating.(17) Cities and towns can promote energy efficiency and public health by incorporating zoning laws and incentives that provide building lots with south-facing solar access, and protect solar access for existing buildings. This article explores the viability of passive solar and solar-tempered space heating in northern U.S. regions and metro areas. I will quantify solar heating potential by looking at climate data for 22 large cities across the northern U.S. The winter climates in these cities differ not just in temperature ranges, but also in the amount of winter sunlight. Winter temperatures and cloudiness are major determinants of the potential and the cost-effectiveness of exploiting solar heat gain for space heating.This article also explores the difference in solar gain between south-facing windows and windows facing other directions. Most consumers do not realize the extent to which window orientation affects the amount of light and solar heat gain. Table 2 lists solar gain data for the 22 northern U.S. cities.Columns 1-3 lists the same city data, in the same order, as Table 1.Columns 3-6 lists the daily amount of solar heat gain in January, per square foot of glass, for windows facing south, east, west, and north (and the total of all four), respectively. Note that east- and west-facing glazing provide an equal amount of solar heat gain, but east gains mostly in the morning, and west mostly in the afternoon.Column 7 shows the percentage of the total amount of solar gain that comes from the south-facing glazing. Note that the majority of the total solar gain comes from the south-facing windows for all cities in January. The further north, the greater the percentage of gain from the south-facing windows vs. other directions during mid-winter.Column 8 shows (with red negative numbers) the average January daily heat loss per square foot of glass (assuming glazing is rated R-5 or U=0.2, with window coverings adding some insulation during nighttime hours to attain U=0.15). A new, affordable but well-insulated window (with cellular blinds used at night) would attain values similar to those listed in the table.Column 9 shows the net heat gain per day for south-facing windows (which is the solar heat gain minus the heat loss).The last column (#10) shows the percent of net heat gain compared to the heat gain for window glass. This shows that a good percentage of the gains from south windows are retained, despite losses, except in Anchorage, Alaska.Note (in the last two columns, #9 and #10) that Denver has better net solar heat gains than anywhere else in the list. Kansas City and the seven northeastern seaboard cities do almost as well with average net solar heat gain in January. At the bottom, Anchorage is the only city that has average net heat losses through south-facing windows. There is so little solar heat gain through all windows in Anchorage in January (and such large heat losses), that heat losses far exceed the gains, even for south-facing windows. For all other areas, solar heat gain through south-facing windows exceeds the heat lost through the glass.In column 7, “South Percentage of Total Gains,” note that south-facing windows provide the majority of the total solar gains for every city in the list. In January, south-facing windows always account for more solar gain than east + west + north combined. South-facing windows provide between 59% and 77% of the total solar gains, despite making up only 25% of the glazing of the four windows of equal size. To maximize wintertime interior daylighting and solar heat gains, south windows should be larger in size or in number than windows facing other directions.Note that south-facing windows typically have solar heat gains (column 3) at least double the heat losses (column 8). In contrast, the east, west, and north-facing windows lose more heat (column 8) than they gain in January (columns 4 or 5), except in Denver. (For Denver, east- and west-facing windows do have a net solar heat gain of 25%, which is positive, but only one-third as much as south-facing window’s 75% net gain.)Buffalo, Pittsburgh, and cities in the Pacific Northwest do not do as well as most other cities. Their net solar heat gain is only about a quarter of Denver’s. Other cities in the list across the Midwest and northern central U.S. get about half the net solar heat gain of Denver. Table 3 shows the net solar gain and value of solar gains in northern U.S. cities.The first six columns list the same 22 U.S. cities and other previously displayed data, which are helpful in determining the value and ease of using solar heat gains for space heating.Column 7 computes an index of how easily solar heat gains from window glazing can be used to heat a building for each of the cities. This Solar Gain Index uses south window glazing net BTUs of heat per day per square foot of glazing, and divides by the Heating Degree Days for that location. (The result also is multiplied by 100 so that numbers are transformed into a simple single digit range.)The larger the net solar gains, and the smaller the winter heating needed, the better the score on the index.Locations that lack significant net solar heat gain, or that require a lot of wintertime heating, score lower on this index.This simple computation provides a metric to rate locations for ease of using passive solar or solar tempered winter space heating.Column 8 computes an index of how cost-effective or how valuable solar heat gains can be for a location. This Solar Value Index uses south window glazing net BTUs of heat per day per square foot of glazing, and multiplies by the Heating Degree Days and by the price of electricity. (The result also is divided by 10 million so that numbers are transformed into the single digit range.)The larger the net solar gains, the larger the amount of winter heating needed, and the higher the price of electricity, the better the score on the index.Locations needing a lot of heating, that have high electricity prices, and that have good net solar gains, get higher scores.Locations get lower scores if they can’t generate much net solar gains, need less winter heating, or have cheap electric rates for minisplit heat pumps, electric radiant heating, or resistance electrical heating. High-performance homes likely use these space heating appliances, since less space heating energy is required in well-insulated, airtight homes.This simple computation provides a metric to rate locations for the value or cost-effectiveness of passive solar or solar tempered winter space heating.Many more cities in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and elsewhere could be added to this list to compute comparative solar heating ease and value. Only their (1) net south-facing glazing heat gains; (2) winter heating degree days; and (3) cost of electricity, would be needed to create a more comprehensive list.The list of 22 northern U.S. cities can be re-ordered by the two indices for the ease of heating by solar gains and the value of solar heating. Tables 4 and 5 show the re-ordered lists. Note that northeastern coastal cities now rate highly along with Denver and Kansas City, for the value of solar heat gain (due to high electricity rates in the Northeast). Again, the northeastern coastal cities look promising for using solar heat gains for wintertime space heating. Otherwise, the ordering remains similar to the previous ordering by amount of solar heat gain from south windows (Tables 1 through 3). Bob Opaluch designed and built a passive solar home in Colorado, renovated two homes in Massachusetts, and has many years of renovation, maintenance, repair, and furniture-building experience. He led a course in Sustainable Architecture for Lifelong Learning Collaborative, an adult ed organization in Providence, R.I. Bob has degrees in applied mathematics and in philosophy from Brown University, and psychology from UCLA. He was a psychology professor for five years, and a software and web site usability and design engineer for 20 years.
dan rowinski Related Posts Tags:#app development#Apple#iOS 7 Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces As Apple plows towards the release of the next iPhone, it is working with developers to get their apps ready for the next version of its mobile operating system, iOS 7. But Apple hit a major hiccup in the middle of The Summer Of iOS 7 and has had a big hit on developers.Apple’s developer center for iOS was hacked by a “security researcher” a little more than a week ago. The researcher, Ibrahim Balic, insisted that he was just probing the developer center for bugs he could then report back to Apple, but he also may have been able to access the personal information of 100,000 iOS developers. His research, or hack, has had consequences larger than Balic probably intended.For most of the last week, iOS developers did not have access to the tools they needed to build apps for the iPhone and iPad. The loss of access to the developer center for a critical week in the middle of summer was a blow for developers that already have a lot to digest with Apple’s new operating system version. But it also appears that Apple’s app reviewers are getting bogged down by the crash of the developer center.One developer, who asked not to be identified, said they received a letter from Apple saying that the app it submitted for review would require additional time.The letter stated:“We are currently reviewing an app that you submitted for inclusion on the App Store, and want to let you know that the review process will require additional time. We apologize for the delay and will provide you with an update on the status of your app as soon as possible.” A conversation with one other developer revealed that they also had received similar letters from Apple. The developer said that it had never received a letter like that from Apple before in submissions to Apple for its apps and updates.On one hand, it is perfectly reasonable for Apple to tell a developer it needs more time. Especially considering the issues the company is dealing with concerning the iOS developer center. On the other hand, this is fairly unusual behavior for Apple’s app reviewers who are normally able to turn an app review in anywhere between one to three days.The developer said that it was six days from the time of submission until it got the notice from Apple requesting additional time for review. It has since between another five days and the developer’s app still has not been approved.In addition to the app approval delays, the downtime for the iOS developer center meant that app publishers were without the certifications and provisioning profiles needed to add functionality to their apps and publish them to the App Store. Those capabilities were fixed when the developer center came back online earlier this week and Apple released iOS 7 beta 4 for developers. The iOS developer forums, technical support, Xcode Automatic Configuration and videos continue to be unavailable. That means that iOS developers currently have no official avenues of support from Apple or the iOS community currently. Developers are likely flocking to the regular destinations for coder communities like GitHub, StackOverflow, the App Developers Alliance and Code Project can be consulted. The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement
FREE NUKE TRAINING SERIES from The Foundry Want to jump into Nuke, The Foundry’s professional compositing and visual effects app? Check out this series of quick video tutorials to get started!The Foundry’s NUKE is one of the post production industry’s leading compositing, rotoscoping and tracking applications. The biggest studios in the biz have used Nuke (Digital Domain, Weta Digital and Industrial Light & Magic, to name a few) and Nuke has created the visual effects in such films as Avatar, The Curious Case of Benajmin Button and Black Swan.As the price continues to drop for high end compositing applications (Smoke & Nuke being two big ones), they’re now more accessible than ever. However, professional node based compositing apps can be a bit intimidating to folks who previously have only worked with the traditional layout and workflow of non-linear video editing applications. So how do you get started with a node based compositing app like Nuke?Be intimidated no more. In the following 11 part Nuke training series from The Foundry, you’ll discover how to use Nuke for your post production needs. Among the topics covered are creating and applying effects with nodes, keyframing elements, rotoscoping, keying, tracking and working in stereoscopic 3D.To get started, check out the first video in the 11 part series: the Nuke Interface Overview. Once you’ve got a handle on the workspace, click on the links below to view the more targeted tutorials in this Nuke training series.Are you using Nuke? Share your thoughts in the comments below!
Speaking about her character Bhavana, who is in the Speaking about her character Bhavana, who is in the process of a self discovery, Sonali said, “Its a very interestingly woven story. Bhavana did not know what she wanted except for love. But the routes she took probably did not take her to the correct address. “Sometimes to defeat failures we opt for strange solutions. I am not going into the morality or rights and wrongs of the character but I just wanted to find (and portray) the confusion between love and passion of the character. About the potrayal of Devdutt Bose, actor Arif says, “It had complete inputs from the director (Saif) from the stylization to its visualization. However, a lot of things evolved since the time we started performing it and during the rehearsals. Not everything was written but it became part as more shows happened and the characters that we see have a lot of contribution by others including the actors.” Meanwhile both the actors revelled at the response to the first show of “Gardish Mein Taare” in the national capital. “Outstanding experience performing in Delhi for the first time. I wanted to perform well and am satisfied with the outstanding response. Looking forward to be here back again,” Sonali said. Arif on a lighter note, said, “Not many people left the show midway… so it felt good. People appreciated it.” “It was good, a little difficult, enjoyable overall. Before the show there is a little nervousness but it gets sorted once we start performing. Thats the beauty of live theatre,” he said. PTI KIS ANSadvertisement
HOUSTON — Kris Jenkins is one of those players who believes every shot is going in. Sometimes, it feels so right to be right.The Villanova junior answered a double-clutch, game-tying 3-pointer by North Carolina’s Marcus Paige with a buzzer-beating 3 of his own April 4 to lift the Wildcats to a 77-74 victory and the national championship.One good shot deserved another. And Jenkins wasn’t about to be outdone.“I think every shot’s going in,” he said, “and this one was no different.”The shot came on a play Villanova works on every day in practice: Jenkins inbounds the ball to Ryan Arcidiacono, he works it up court and forward Daniel Ochefu sets a pick near half-court to clutter things up, then Arcidiacono creates.This time, the senior point guard made an underhanded flip to Jenkins, who spotted up a pace or two behind the arc and swished it with Carolina’s Isaiah Hicks running at him. Or, as Jenkins put it: “One, two step, shoot ’em up, sleep in the streets.”Jenkins had to come up big after Paige collected a pass on the top right side of the arc and, with Arcidiacono running at him, double clutched and pumped it in to tie the game at 74 with 4.7 seconds left.It completed a Carolina comeback from six points down with 1:52 left.Coach Jay Wright called timeout and called the play the Wildcats (33-5) have worked on all season.“I didn’t have to say anything in the huddle,” he said. “We have a name for it, that’s what we’re going to do. Just put everybody in their spots.”He knew the shot was going in, too.“Bang,” Wright said as he watched it fall, then calmly walked to shake Carolina coach Roy Williams’ hand. Confetti flew. The refs looked at the replay to make sure the shot got off in time. It did. The points went up on the scoreboard. Celebration on.Jenkins finished with 14 points — the last three as memorable as any that have been scored in the history of this tournament.After being thrown to the floor by his teammates, Jenkins got up, leaped over press row, hugged his birth mom — a college basketball coach who helped him hone his shot — and shouted, “They said we couldn’t, they said we couldn’t, they said we couldn’t.”Oh yes, they could.This adds to the title Villanova won in 1985, when Rollie Massimino, who was on hand, coaxed a miracle out of his eighth-seeded underdogs for a victory over star-studded Georgetown.Hard to top this one, though.Jenkins, who was adopted by the family of North Carolina guard Nate Britt when his mother moved to take a coaching job, now has a spot alongside — and probably above — Keith Smart, Lorenzo Charles, Christian Laettner and everyone else who ever made a late game-winner to win a big one in March Madness.Paige finished with 21 and Joel Berry II had 20 for the Heels (33-7), the only No. 1 seed to make the Final Four. They came one agonizing shot short of giving Williams his third national title.Not surprisingly, the tears flowed from the 65-year-old coach who, some speculate, could have worked his last game on the sideline; the entire sports program at Chapel Hill is under NCAA scrutiny and awaiting possible penalties for a long-running academic-fraud case.“I’m not very good because I can’t take away the hurt,” Williams said. “I told them I loved them. I told them I wish I could have helped them more.”His thought when he saw the last shot fly: “It was helpless. It was not a good feeling.”Even MJ felt the pain. In the stands with the thousands of Carolina Blue-wearing fans, Michael Jordan simply nodded, smiled, looked at his buddy Ahmad Rashad and said, “Good shot, good shot.”High praise from the Great One. And what a night for Villanova — a second-seeded team full of scrappers, grinders and also-rans, who proved you don’t have to have a roster full of NBA-bound one-and-doners to win a title.More people in the ESPN bracket contest picked ‘Nova to lose to a No. 15 seed in the first round than to win the whole thing. This team flamed out early in the last two tournaments despite big expectations.Not this time.Before Jenkins did his thing, it was unheralded sophomore Phil Booth — who isn’t unheralded on that Villanova squad? — pouring in a career high 20 points to give the Cats their late six-point lead.Booth forced a turnaround jumper with the shot-clock blaring to give ‘Nova a 69-64 lead at the 3:03 mark. With 1:52 left, a free throw from Josh Hart pushed the lead to six.But Carolina never quits. Paige sandwiched a 3-pointer and a putback around a bucket from Brice Johnson (14 points, eight rebounds) to help the Tar Heels stay within striking range.Then, he took a bounce pass, scooted by the diving Ochefu, twisted past Arcidiacono and hit his double-clutch.Carolina fans went wild, and it looked like overtime. Only, it wasn’t.“If I could get a shot, I was going to shoot it,” said Arcidiacono, who finished with 16 points and two assists, one more memorable than the other. “But I heard someone screaming in the back of my head. It was Kris. I just gave it to him and he let it go with confidence.”(EDDIE PELLS, AP National Writer)TweetPinShare0 Shares
She has been scorching the track with one record after another but India’s new sprint sensation Hima Das doesn’t want to be left behind in studies either and is juggling between training and board exams these days.The transformation of Hima, the reigning world junior champion in 400m, into a top quartermiler has been nothing short of phenomenal considering that she has already run sub 51 seconds at only 19 years of age and that too after a dozen competitive races since late 2016.The sprinter from Assam’s Kandhulimari village in Nagaon district became a star overnight and kept improving her timing through the last year, culminating in a national record time of 50.79 seconds while winning silver in the Asian Games.But, just like any other youngster she realises the need to have educational degrees. She is currently appearing for her class 12 exams under the Assam Higher Secondary Education Council.”I am looking at some major tournaments in 2019 and I am trying to focus on my training along with taking examination,” Hima told PTI from Guwahati.Hima’s board exams began on February 12 and will go on till the middle of March. She is not staying at her native village to appear for the examination at nearby Dhing College. She is shuttling between her home and Guwahati’s Sports Authority of India hostels, which is 120kms away.”I have made my schedule in such a way that whenever I am getting time from studies, I do my training,” said Hima, the only Indian woman to have won a track and field gold at the world level.advertisementHima’s next paper is on Saturday (February 16) and she will come back home from Guwahati on the evening of Friday, her cousin Bijoy Das said.”She came on the evening of February 11, appeared for her first paper the next morning and left home for Guwahati in the afternoon just after the examination is over,” Bijoy said.”She told us she will come on Friday evening again for her second paper and then again go back to Guwahati for training. Her parents have no objection, they have left it to her what she wants to do. Of course, they want her to have some educational qualification also,” he added.Hima’s father Ranjit Das has a two bigha plot of land and mother Junali is a housewife. The small piece of land is the only source of income for a family of six. She is the eldest of four siblings, with two younger sisters and one younger brother.The athletics season starts next month with the Federation Cup National Championships, which will serve as the selection trial for the Asian Championships (April 21-14), at Patiala from March 15 to 18.Asked how Hima will appear for the papers as well participate in the Nationals, Bijoy said, “Her exams end before the Nationals so it should not be a problem.”Though still young, Hima is already a well-known sportsperson in Assam and she was made the sports ambassador of the state last year, besides being showered with several other honours. She was also conferred with the Arjuna Award by the Indian government last year.